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  • Future of HRTEM and Spectroscopy At present, modern nanosciences - materials science and life science - merge further and further together, enabling remarkable contributions to society by interdisciplinary work of scientists from different fields, which request novel imaging and sensing strategies. The SALVE project creates a new tool for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy for electron-beam sensitive materials science - and life science - objects that can be imaged at voltages between 20 and 80 kV. Our target materials include carbon-based materials, biological objects, oxides, and semiconductors. In the analysis of more than 2000 publications on aberration-corrected (S)TEM, trends are found for lower and medium accelerating voltages, comparing the number of TEM and STEM publications, the materials used, the manufacturers, the number of higher and lower impact factor of the journals, and the use of chromatic aberration correction. In summary it can be stated that there is a rapidly growing market in all areas.
    Publications with a length of at least 3 pages are counted as 1 contribution, with a length of 2 pages are counted as ½ contribution. If low and medium voltages are used in a publication, this publication is taken into account as ½ contribution at low and medium voltages.
  • Trend hardware aberration corrected electron microscopy: voltage 20 kV - 300 kV
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Accelerating voltage

    First papers on AC-TEM report on results obtained with 200 kV TEMs, redeemed by papers obtained with 300 kV TEMs. Since 2006, papers with 20-80 kV are published. In all voltage ranges, the number of publications using aberration-corrected electron microscopy is strongly increasing.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected medium voltage electron microscopy: High Impact-factor publications-medium-voltage
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Comparison of higher and lower impact factor publications

    We have made an evaluation of the journal impact factor in which publications using aberration-corrected TEM appeared. We distinguish between higher (>10) and lower (<10) impact factor publications. Since the beginning of aberration-corrected TEM, the ratio of higher to lower impact factor publications for the voltage range 100 - 300 kV is increasing, the percentage of higher impact factor publications over all years is about 11%.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected medium voltage electron microscopy: High Impact-factor publications-medium-voltage
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Comparison of higher and lower impact factor publications

    Since the beginning of aberration-corrected low-voltage TEM, the ratio of higher (>10) to lower (<10) impact factor publications is also increasing, the percentage of high impact factor publications over all years is 30%. This extraordinarily high value shows the novelty of discoveries obtained by 20 - 80 kV AC-TEM.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected medium voltage electron microscopy: methods TEM / STEM
    New trends in AC-TEM

    TEM, STEM, TEM/STEM

    First peer-reviewed papers on successful aberration correction were published in 1997 using TEM and STEM. In the first years, the ratio of number of publications that use TEM and the number of publications that use STEM was about 1:1 in the voltage range 100-300 kV. Since then this ratio decreased constantly and reaches nowadays almost 1:3 (TEM:STEM).

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: methods TEM / STEM
    New trends in AC-TEM

    TEM, STEM, TEM/STEM

    When the first publications using LV-AC-TEM (20-80 kV) were appearing in 2005, the TEM configuration was used primarily. Since then, the use of STEM increased strongly, and today the number of publications that use TEM and STEM is almost balanced. The reported measurements using two aberration correctors is constant over the years with about 5%, as also in the medium voltage range.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected medium voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Materials examined

    For AC-TEM/STEM with acceleration voltages between 100 kV and 300 kV, the application fields are dominated by classical materials (nanocrystals oxides and semiconductors). Low-D materials and biological objects are very rarely investigated at 100-300 kV because these materials are very sensitive to electron beam induced damage.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Materials examined

    For AC-TEM/STEM with acceleration voltages between 20 kV and 80 kV, the application fields are dominated by low-D carbon materials. As is further seen, there is a strong increase of papers on low-D inorganic materials.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Low-dimensional materials

    Here, the dominating materials class in the voltage range between 20 kV and 80 kV, low-D materials, is shown in more detail. BN ("white graphene") and chalcogenides are main sub-groups in Low-D inorganic materials. The number of publications reporting on AC-TEM of chalcogenides is strongly increasing since 2012, reaching today already about ½ of the number of publications on pure graphene.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    TEM/STEM manufacturers

    Here we present the manufacturer ranking for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopes used in the papers published on 100 to 300 kV AC-TEM/STEM. This medium voltage range is headed by FEI Electron Optics, including Philips (mainly Titan-based series) and JEOL Ltd. (mainly ARM200 series).

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    TEM/STEM manufacturers

    Here we present the manufacturer ranking of the number of publications for aberration-corrected (scanning-) transmission electron microscopes in the voltage range 20 to 80 kV. In this low-voltage range JEOL could in relation to FEI catch up in recent years, but most publications are still published with FEI TEM's (mainly Titan series), followed by JEOL (mainly 2200 and ARM200 series), NION Corp. (UltraSTEM series), ZEISS (Libra series) and Hitachi (HD series).

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Corrector manufacturers

    Here we show the proportion of the two commercial manufacturers for aberration correctors, CEOS company and NION Corp. used in the evaluated papers on 100-300 kV AC-TEM/STEM. All microscope manufacturers use CEOS correctors, except Nion, who is producing their own correctors for their microscopes.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Corrector manufacturers

    Here we show the proportion of the manufacturers of aberration correctors, used in the evaluated papers on 20 - 80 kV AC-TEM/STEM. CEOS has developed a low-voltage Cs/Cc corrector for 20 - 80 kV in the frame of the SALVE project and JEOL has developed a low-voltage Cs/Cc corrector (“DELTA corrector”) for 30 and 60 kV in the frame of the Triple-C project.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: methods TEM / STEM
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Chromatic aberration correction

    First peer-reviewed papers using chromatic aberration-correction (Cc) were published in 2009. The number of publications using Cs/Cc-correction is higher for lower voltages than for the medium voltage range, as the effect of the chromatic aberration is much more dominant at lower voltages and Cs-correction alone is not sufficient to achieve atomic resolution at 20-80 kV. At present CEOS GmbH is the only commercial provider of Cs/Cc-correctors.

SALVE Committee

SALVE II Project